Figure 1. Great Canyon state playground conserves a legendary geologic surroundings and resources starting from 1,840 to 270 million yrs . old, such as varied paleontological means;

Figure 1. Great Canyon state playground conserves a legendary geologic surroundings and resources starting from 1,840 to 270 million yrs . old, such as varied paleontological means;

unconsolidated exterior deposits; an intricate tectonic and erosion records; and Pliocene to Holocene volcanic deposits. The Colorado River developed the program through canyon about six million years back, and likely changed from pre-existing drainages to the latest course. Geologic processes, including erosion of tributaries and slopes, and productive tectonics always profile the canyon today. The geologic record in great Canyon is an important health-related chronicle and is largely in charge of their motivational scenery.


Well known for the geologic relevance, the great Canyon is one of the most studied geologic scenery on earth. It gives an outstanding record of three in the four eras of geological opportunity, a refreshing and diverse fossil record, a massive assortment of geologic characteristics and stone kinds, and numerous caves that contain extensive and big geological, paleontological, archeological and biological information. It’s considered the finest examples of arid-land erosion in this field. The Canyon, incised from the Colorado River, is actually immense, averaging 4,000 legs strong for the whole 277 kilometers. It’s 6,000 base strong at its deepest point and 15 kilometers at the widest. The image below concerts the layers of stone being exposed inside canyon.

Figure 2. drawing revealing the location, era and width regarding the stone devices exposed from inside the great Canyon.

This is a geologic cross section (not interested in size) that displays the stratigraphy from the large Canyon. Put another way, they shows just what stone levels would appear to be any time you grabbed a knife and sliced all the way down through world at a given area, like a piece of cake. You’re looking at those layers from the “side” on the easy contained in this image. Observe that all three forms of stone (sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous) are present in this cross section. Note the way the ages with the rock reduction in years from base to reach the top. Whether it weren’t currently labeled, do you think would certainly be able to spot the Great Unconformity around the base of the canyon?

What age is the big Canyon? (elective)

Listen to boffins talk about age the fantastic Canyon in addition to controversy across the relationship dating sober. Click the enjoy option about left regarding the page to listen. (Transcripts available on the remaining selection too.)

This associated informative document is inspired by the fantastic Canyon Tips Guide newsprint, printed by the large Canyon nationwide Park.


You will be identifying the relative order wherein geological events occurred, as found inside universal stratigraphic cross-section (below). Stratigraphy may be the study with the rock strata, or layers, and is also normally put on sedimentary (and sometimes volcanic) rocks.

Figure 3. Diagram demonstrating cross-cutting connections in geology. These relations may be used to offer tissues a relative age. Information: A – folded rock strata cut by a push fault; B – large attack (slicing through A); C – erosional angular unconformity (cutting-off A & B) where stone strata were placed; D – volcanic dyke (cutting through A, B & C); Age – even younger rock strata (overlying C & D); F – normal failing (cutting through A, B, C & E).

  1. Learn the 3-D cross-section above. The cross section consists of evidence of foldable in coating grams (a squeezing of rock due to compression— we’ll learn more about that in module 11) and faulting among the list of numerous rock layers.
  2. Exactly what stone type(s) include symbolized in each one of the layers B, G, D, E (sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic)? Describe the manner in which you determined this.
  3. What kind of unconformity does C express? Explain. (tip: the options are disconformity, nonconformity, angular unconformity, or paraconformity.)
  4. That letter(s) or layer(s) of rock really does the concept of Superposition use, and exactly why? Mention.
  5. Prepare your order whereby each lettered show (A-H) took place the series, from earliest to youngest. (Hint: Just remember that , one and F become fault traces, D was a dike, and C are an unconformity.)
  6. At what point in the sequence do you consider the folding of unit grams took place, and just why? Mention.
  7. In 3 – 4 sentences, explain the Law of combination Cutting connections pertains to the cross section additionally the sequence where you ordered the happenings.
  8. Perform some browsing on the net (or in other places) to obtain another simple geologic cross section of your choice.
    • Add a picture of the cross-section in your write-up, and describe the transaction by which happenings occurred in the area.
    • Please put brands on the cross-section in the event it does not already have all of them, which makes it obvious which events you may be talking about.
    • Cite your origin for the cross-section, please!

Grading Rubric

10 details: All concerns had been answered completely and truthfully. Comprehensive phrases were utilized to respond to the sample concerns.

8 details: All questions had been responded and happened to be mostly precise. Best a couple of slight errors.

5 things: solutions had been as well brief and 1 – 2 questions happened to be unanswered.

2 points: best really partial facts provided.

0 points: Did not execute the project.

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